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Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ)

About the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire


The Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ) is a 46-item instrument with 6 subscales, which were validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The subscales are Information Sharing, Anticipatory Guidance, Sufficient Time, Approachability, Availability, and Support and Respect. Construct validity of the original QPCQ was further demonstrated using a hypothesis testing approach; there was a significant  positive association between women’s ratings of the quality of prenatal care and their satisfaction with care (r = 0.81). Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r = 0.63) between the “Support and Respect” subscale of the QPCQ and the “Respectfulness/Emotional Support” subscale of the Prenatal Interpersonal Processes of Care instrument. The original QPCQ has acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.96), as does each of the subscales (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.73 to 0.93) . The test-retest reliability result (Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.88) indicated stability of the instrument on repeat administration approximately one week later. Temporal stability testing confirmed that women’s ratings of their quality of prenatal care did not change as a result of giving birth or between the early postpartum period and 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. 

The QPCQ is intended to be completed by women after 36 weeks of pregnancy or within the first 6 weeks postpartum. It can be used by researchers to compare quality of prenatal care across regions, populations and service delivery models, and to examine relationships between quality of care and a variety of maternal and infant health outcomes. The QPCQ also can be used in quality assurance and improvement work.

The Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire is available in the following versions:
1. Original
2. Australian
Note: This version is identical to the original QPCQ except it uses the term “antenatal care” instead of “prenatal care”.

3. French 

4. Chinese (not validated)

5. German (not validated, refers only to midwifery care)

6. Myanmar

7. Persian (not validated)

8. Portuguese

9. Portuguese for Brazil (not validated)

10. Tagalog (not validated)

11. Turkish (not validated)

12. Yoruba (not validated)




The following citation should be included in publications of works that used the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire:

Sword, W., Heaman, M., and the QPCQ Research Team. (2013). Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. Retrieved from

For information and citation about development and testing of the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire, please refer to the following articles:

Heaman, M.I., Sword, W.A., Akhtar-Danesh, N., Bradford, A., Tough, S., Janssen, P.A., Young, D.C., Kingston, D.A., Hutton, E.K., & Helewa, M.E. (2014). Quality of prenatal care questionnaire: instrument development and testing. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14:188. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-188

Sword, W., Heaman, M., Biro, M.A., Homer, C., Yelland, J., Akhtar-Danesh, N., & Bradford-Janke, A. (2015). Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire: psychometric testing in an Australian population. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15:214. doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0644-7

Sword, W., Heaman, M., Peterson, W., Salvador, A., Akhtar-Danesh, N., & Bradford, A. Psychometric testing of the French language Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 23, 436-451. 


Click here to access the QPCQ request form.